专四虚拟语气语法总结(虚拟语气语法总结if)

2022年4月26日00:25:38专四虚拟语气语法总结(虚拟语气语法总结if)已关闭评论

— “语气”分类 —

在英语中,语气是动词的一种形式,它表示说话人对某一行为或事情的看法和态度。

  • 陈述语气(indicative mood):用来陈述一个事实,或提出一个想法,有肯定、否定、疑问和感叹等形式。
  • 祈使语气(imperative mood):表达直接命令或请求的语气。
  • 虚拟语气(subjunctive mood):表示说话人的一种愿望、建议、命令、要求,有时是一种非真实的假设、料想,或是不可能实现的、与事实相反的愿望。
  • 疑问语气(interrogative mood):主要用于提出问题,询问情况。主要分为4种:一般疑问句、选择疑问句、特殊疑问句和反意疑问句。

— 虚拟语气的用法

虚拟语气主要有三大板块内容,即if条件句中的虚拟语气、名词性从句中的虚拟语气和其他特殊句型中的虚拟语气。

1、if条件句中的虚拟语气

  • 与现在事实相反

例如: 如果他们在这儿,会帮助你的。If they were here, they would help you.

实际含义:他们不在这,也不会帮助你。They are not here, they can’t help you.

  • 与过去事实相反

例如: 如果他昨天来了的话,我就把这件事告诉他了。If he had come yesterday, I would have told him about it.

实际含义:他昨天没来,所以我也没告诉他这件事。He did not come yesterday, so I did not tell him about it.

  • 与将来可能事实相反

例如: 如果你成功了,一切都会好的。

If you succeeded, everything would be all right.

If you were to succeed, everything would be all right.

实际含义:你不太可能成功,一切都会是现在的样子。

You are not likely to succeed, everything will be what it is now.

  • if条件句的省略和倒装

条件句的谓语动词有系动词 were , 助动词 had 或 should,可将 if 省略,把 were,had,should 移到主语前(倒装),变为Were / Should / Had +主+其他。

例句:

1.Were I you, I would try it again.

2. Had he been there yesterday, he would have seen the film.

3. Should it snow tomorrow, we wouldn’t go out.

规律:if 溜,had, should, were句首走。

  • 错综时间虚拟语气

错综时间句:即虚拟条件从句与虚拟主句中谓语动作的时间不一致如从句指过去,而主句即指的是现在或将来,此时应根据具体的语境情况,结合前面提到的三种基本类型对时态作相应的调整

例如:1.If it had rained last night, the ground would be wet now.要是昨晚下过雨的话,现在地面就会是湿的。

做题方法:找准时间 灵活对应

  • wish、as if/though和if引导的虚拟语气用法相同

补充:if only :意为“要是……就好了”,用法同 “I wish”。

2、名词性从句中的虚拟语气

表“建议,命令,要求”等意义时,名词性从句用(should)+ 动词原形

(1) 建议:动词advise, suggest, propose, recommend (名词advice, suggestion, proposal, recommendation)

(2) 命令:名词order, command

(3) 要求:动词request, require, demand, ask, insist (名词request, requirement, demand)

注意:

(1)suggest 意为“表明,暗示”时,宾语从句不用虚拟语气。

(2)insist 意为“坚持认为,坚持说”时,宾语从句不用虚拟语气。

(3)★名词性从句表示说话人“强烈”的感情色彩时,从句用should +动词原形/should + have done,should 可译为“应该;居然,竟然”。(should 可以省略)

3、其他特殊句型中的虚拟语气

  • ① would rather/prefer 引导的虚拟语气

句型:would rather/prefer + that-从句(从句用虚拟语气)

(1)表示愿望与现在事实相反,从句用一般过去时。

(2)表示愿望与过去事实相反,从句用过去完成时。

(3)表示愿望与将来事实相反,从句用一般过去时。

例句:

(1)I would rather you paid me now.

(2)I would rather you had gone, too.

(3)Don’t come. I would rather you came tomorrow.

注意:如果表示的事情可能会发生,那么状语从句中的谓语动词可用陈述语气。

  • ② It’s (about/high) time 引导的虚拟语气

句型:It’s (about/high) time +that —过去时 / should +v.

例句:你该走了。

(1)It’s high time that you went.

(2)It’s high time that you should go.

例句:我们该去睡觉了。

(1)It’s time that we went to bed.

(2)It’s time that we should go to bed.

  • ③ without和but for 构成虚拟(but for要不是)

句型:从句—would do/ would have done

例句:1. Without sunlight, people’s life would be different from today.没有阳光,人们的生活将与今天不同。

2. But for your help, I wouldn’t have finished the work.如果没有你的帮助,我就不会完成这项工作。

  • ④ It’s necessary /strange/ natural/ important + that 从句

句型:从句中的动词要用虚拟,即(should)+动词原形

例句:It is important that we ( should ) master a foreign language.重要的是,我们(应该)掌握一门外语。

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